One day, in retrospect,
the years of struggle will
strike you as the most
Sigmund Freud


Psychoanalysis is a system of psychological theory and therapy which was originally developed and popularised by the Austrian physician, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939).

This theory posits that mental disorders and maladaptive personality traits are caused due to unconscious, repressed wishes, conflicts and fears.

Therapy therefore, aims at making the unconscious thoughts and motivation conscious. The aim of psychoanalytic therapy is to release the repressed emotions and experiences i.e. make the unconscious conscious, does help the analysis and gain insight into their symptoms.


The Indian Psychoanalytical Society was founded in the year 1922 in Calcutta, long before even many European and other Western countries thought of doing so, and was immediately accepted as a constituent member of the International Psychoanalytical Association. Psychoanalysis in India had, indeed, and indigenous origin. As far back as in the year 1911, Dr. Girindra Sekhar Bose, the founder of the Indian Psychoanalytical Society, was already experimenting with a psychological method of treatment of mental patients, which was very much akin to Freud’s Psychoanalysis.

Working almost independently, Bose formulated his theory of opposite wishes and by the middle of the second decade, he ventured to treat mental patients on psychoanalytical lines as developed by himself. In 1921, the University of Calcutta conferred on him the Doctor of Science degree on his thesis titled “The Concept of Repression”, which has since been recognised among the classics of psychoanalytical literature. Bose’s theory differs from Freud’s in some very important respects although on many basic points there is close correspondence between them.
Today we have completed 94 years of existence - not a mean achievement. We odder training in Psychoanalysis and run a course in Psychiatric Counseling. We also run a psychiatric clinic - Girindra Sekhar Memorial Clinic which provides psychiatric service at a cheap rate.
We hope to extend our activities in the near future.

The Indian psychoanalytical Society has been selected the Society of the month for the month of July, 2017 by the International Psychoanalytical Association. Here is the write up sent to the Association:
Indian Psychoanalytical society

The above picture is the logo of the Indian Psychoanalytical Society – the combined image of Hindu God Shiva and his consort Parvati – half male and half female - symbolising bisexuality of human beings.
Indian Psychoanalytical Society was established on 26th January, 1922. Its founder, Dr. Girindrasekhar Bose (more popularly known as G. Bose) (1886 – 1953) had a medical degree from Calcutta University in 1910, a Master’s in psychology from Calcutta University in 1917. In 1921 Dr. Bose was awarded the D.Sc. degree of Calcutta University for his original thesis The Concept of Repression. This same year records the beginning of contact between Bose and Freud when Bose sent a copy of his thesis Concept of Repression to Freud for his comments. On May 29th, 1921, Freud writes in reply that he was “glad to testify the correctness of its principal views and the good sense appearing in it.” When it was published as a book, Freud wrote in its preface that “It was a great and pleasant surprise that the first book on a psychoanalytic subject which came to us from that part of the world (India) should display so good a knowledge of Psychoanalysis, so deep an insight into its difficulties and so much of deep-going original thought…”. Correspondence between Bose and Freud continued till 1937. This correspondence has been published by the Indian Psychoanalytical Society in the form a book. Interest in the Bose-Freud correspondence is still alive. Very recently the Library of Congress, USA, sought our permission to upload it in its Freud archive for research purposes. Livio Boni – an Italian researcher also has sought our permission to translate it in French. The French translation is scheduled to be published in 2018.

Bose’s views are original and differed in important respects from those of Freud. His concept of repression is known as the theory of opposite wishes which substantially differs from Freudian concept of repression. Bose also differed from Freud in the importance of castration complex in the resolution of Oedipus complex. He did not find castration complex playing such an important role among his Indian patients. In his A New Theory of Mental Life also Bose posited a theoretical ego instead of Freud’s tripartite division of mind into Id, Ego and Superego and claimed that many theoretical problems of psychoanalysis can be solved with his theory of opposite wishes and theoretical ego.
Bose had deep and profound knowledge of Indian Philosophy and applied his knowledge of psychoanalysis to give them a new interpretation. He wrote more than 40 articles and authored about 10 books. This account should not make you think of him as a serious and unsmiling person. He was a good magician and would entertain children with his magic shows. He also used his skill in magic to develop rapport with the rural patients who were scared of coming to a mental doctor to get their mental health problems treated.

Bose ran a free outdoor chamber in his home to treat mental patients. He was a humanitarian, a devoted teacher, an efficient editor, and a good administrator. One of his most important contributions is the establishment of Lumbini Park Mental Hospital (1938) – a hospital devoted to the indoor and outdoor treatment of mental patients. Starting from a 3-bed hospital it grew into an 80-bed hospital – the largest private mental hospital run by any psychoanalytical society at that time. However, in 1980s it was taken over by the State Government because of labour problems.
Dr. Suhrid Chandra Mitra, Dr. Tarun Chandra Sinha, D. Sc., Dr. Shib Kumar Mitra, Dr. D. N. Nandi –are all our past presidents and all are eminent educationists and/or psychoanalysts.
The Head office of the Society is located in Kolkata at 14, Parsi Bagan Lane, Kolkata700 009. We have our Mumbai and Delhi chapter also.
The Society has two wings – The Indian Psychoanalytical Society and the Indian Psychoanalytical Institute. The Indian Psychoanalytical Institute offers training in psychoanalysis and an elected Board runs its administration. The President and the Secretary of the Society are ex-officio members of the Board.
The Society is run by a Council which has the President, the Secretary, Assistant Secretary/secretaries and a number of members. Members of the Council and Board are elected from all three chapters of the Society - Kolkata, Mumbai and Delhi. We have currently 32 full members and 40 candidates undergoing training. Our present Council and Board have the following members:
President Prof.(Dr.) Pushpa Misra
Secretary Ms.Sarala Kapoor
Assistant Secretary
Dr.(Ms.) Jhuma Basak
Ms. Micky Bhatia
Mrs. Mallika Akbar
Members Mr. S. Forbes
Dr.(Mrs.) Bani Pain

Director of the Institute
Prof. (Dr.) Pushpa Misra

Members Mrs. M.K. Dastur
Dr.(Ms.) Jhuma Basak
Ms. Micky Bhatia
Mrs. Purnima Gupta
Mrs. Mahasweta Biswas
Dr.(Mrs.) Tultul Ghosh (Aich)
Dr.(Mrs.) Bani Pain

The major task of the Board is to look after the training procedure from selection of candidates to their final evaluation including forming the syllabus and making arrangements for theory classes.
The Institute also offers a one-year Psychiatric Counseling Course with the aim to equip the students with the basic counseling skills. The response to the course has been very encouraging.
The Society runs a Psychiatric Clinic – Girindrasekhar Memorial Clinic – established in 1970. Since then the Clinic with the help of expert psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychoanalysts has been offering mental health services to the poorer section of the society for a nominal charge. Currently three psychiatrists are regularly sitting at the Clinic offering their services to the mentally afflicted people.

The Society organizes Dr. G. Bose memorial Lecture every year besides organizing workshops, seminars and conferences periodically.

In 2018, our Mumbai chapter organized their annual conference in collaboration with Australian Psychoanalytical Society.
they also organized Maneck Bharucha Memorial conference in memory of Late Dr. Maneck Bharucha which was a huge success and was attended by internationally famous Psychoanalysts.

Outreach activities:
In order to encourage interest in psychoanalysis, the Society has provided affiliation to a six-month certificate course on the basic theories of psychoanalysis conducted by the Department of Psychology, West Bengal State University at Barasat.

Our members are also teaching theory classes to interested students at Ahmedabad and Bangalore – two big cities of India with the aim of creating awareness about psychoanalytic theory and therapy. These efforts are proving very fruitful.
The Society has a good library exclusively for psychoanalytic books. It has 2500 books. The library is not yet computerized. The card system still prevails. We plan to computerize it soon. Our present librarian is Dr. Bani pain.

Our distinguished visitors:
Being one of the oldest component societies of the IPA, we have been fortunate to have very distinguished visitors to our Society - some of them legendary- Carl Gustav Jung, Prof. G. M. Carstairs, Dr. W. H. Kiernan, Prof. Samuel Z. Orgel, Dr. Joseph Sandler, Dr. Samuel Erlich, very recently Dr. Laura katz and others. Our recent most distinguished visitor was Alexandra Billinghurst, Vice President of IPA.
In 2018 an exploratoty committee comprising Dr. Antony Stufkens and Dr. Adriana Ponzoni visited our Society and also our Delhi and Mumbai chapters. Dr. Antony Stufkens delivered the 43rd G. Bose Memorial Lecture and Dr. Adriana Pozoni read a paper on 7th of February, 2018.
Four of our students presented clinical papers to the Exploratory Committee which were highly appreicated by both the visitors.
Dr. Ponzoni sought our permission to translate the Bose-Freud Correspondence to translate in Spanish which was gladly granted to her. After returning to her country, Dr. Ponzoni gave a seminar on Bose Freud Correspondence which was attended by a huge number of members and students of Spanish Psychoanalytical Society.

Society’s own English tri-monthly journal Samiksa was started in 1947 under the able editorship of Dr, G. Bose who remained its editor till his death. It was in Samiksa that the Bose-Freud Correspondence was first published serially. After 2008 it is being published bi-annually due to paucity of funds.

The Bengali journal of the Society “Chitta”, meaning “The Psyche”, was a very popular journal. It has a very big contribution in spreading awareness about psychoanalysis and mental health problems in the general population. It publication was discontinued in the early part of 1990s.

Bose also compiled a Bengali dictionary of all major psychoanalytical terms which was first published in 1953 and reprinted in 1972 – an invaluable contribution for the people of this State.

There has been a spurt of interest in psychoanalysis in the last 10- 15 years. This was evident from tAsia-pacific conference held at Taipei, Taiwan in the month of May, 2017. Dr. Minnie Dastur read a paper at the main section, Dr. Pushpa misra commented on the two papers presented in the panel "on being a psychoanalyst today'. she was also invited to launch her book "The Scientific Status of psychoanalysis:Evidence and Confirmation". Mrs. Micky Bhatia also participated in a panel. Ms. Gauri Salvi, Ms. Nilofer Kaul presented papers. Ms. Sarala Kapoor conducted small group sessions as well as conducted clinical sessions.

I would like to end with a happy note. The Asia Pacific Conference of 2022 will be held in Kolkata, India, to celebrate the centenary of the Indian Psychoanalytical Society. On behalf of the Society we invite you all to attend the conference and encourage us to contribute meaningfully to the science of psychoanalysis.


Professor Girindrasekhar Bose, D.Sc., M.B., F.N.I., the founder-president of Lumbini Park and of the Indian Psychoanalytical Society, the first professor psychology of the University of Calcutta and one of the founders of the Indian Psychological Association was born in Darbhanga (Bihar) on January 30, 1886.

Obtaining his medical degree in 1910, he began his career as a medical practitioner. From a very early period of his life, he was much interested in magic and hypnotism, and through that in the deeper workings of the mind. With this bent of mind, Bose tended more and more towards psychiatric practice and to the study of the science of psychology.

In 1917 Bose took his master’s degree in experimental psychology from the University of Calcutta, being among the first batch of students of the University’s of Calcutta conferred on him the Doctor of Science degree on his famous thesis titled “The Concept of Repression”, which attracted attention of Freud, Jones and other foremost psychoanalysts of the day. He was asked to be on the editorial board of the International Journal of Psychoanalysis. The Indian Psychoanalytical Society was founded by Bose in the year 1922, and was immediately accepted as a constituent member of the International Psychoanalytical Association. In the general psychology too, Bose make and number of original contributions. Spearman in his famous book, Psychology Down the Age has quoted long extracts from Bose’s article on Illusion and elaborately discussed Bose’s views.

Main Sources:
Ernest Jones: Sigmund Freud, Life And Work
Ernest Jones: Free AssociationsZeitschrift für Psychoanalyse
International Journal of Psycho-Analysis